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http://neft.dk/dk.gif 25-MAR-2014 (ver. 2.93) | © Lektor FLEMMING RAVN | ENGELSK | AVISER | MAIL ME

 

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ENGELSKE VERBER
og deres bøjning



Hovedregler for regelmæssige verber

A) Navnemåde (infinitiv) og nutid (præsens) har sammenfaldende former (to live, I live).
B) MEN nutid 3. person ental tilføjer +s (he/she/it lives). Hvis verbet i forvejen ender på konsonant+y, ændres dette til -i- (to bury => he buries the dog). MEN hvis verbet i forvejen ender på vokal+y, beholdes -y- (to lay => he lays the table).

C) HUSK, at hjælpeverberne (modal­ver­berne) can, may, must, shall, will og ought to aldrig tilføjer +s i nutid 3. person ental.
D) Datid (præteritum) ender på -ed (I lived, I produced, I kissed). Verber på én stavelse og med én skrevet konsonant i slutningen får fordoblet denne (”to fit in” => "I fitted it in"; men det hedder "he kicked", da "kick" ender på to konsonanter).

E) Reglen med konsontantfordobling (punkt D) gælder også ved udvidet nutid (to run => I am running; it is a fitting description).

HER kan du finde en gloseliste med en række af de almindeligste engelske verber, som man bør kunne på gymnasieniveau.

Uregelmæssige verber opstillet i de tre grundformer

Uregelmæssige verber er sådanne, som ikke følger de almindelige regler som skitseret ovenover. Det bedste råd er egentligt at sige, at de uregelmæssige verbers bøjning ”bare” er noget, der skal huskes. Nedenunder finder du en liste over uregelmæssige engelske verber, og de er opført på traditionel vis i følgende tre former:

1. form = NAVNEMÅDE (infinitiv), NUTID (præsens) og FREMTID (futurum)
2. form = DATID (præteritum)
3. form = FØRNUTID (perfektum), FØRDATID (pluskvamperfektum), samt KORT TILLÆGSMÅDE (perfektum participium passiv = ppp)

Formen kort tillægsmåde (ppp) bruger man bl.a. til at lave førnutid med, mens formen ppa = præsens participium aktiv (lang tillægsmåde) = ing-form (svarer til udvidet nutid). Sidstnævnte form er som regel let nok at danne, når man kender infinitiven. To sing => singing. To have => having. Konsonantfordoblingen som beskrevet under punkt E) oven­over gælder også for ing-formen: To bid (at byde) => bidding. A fitting description.

Eksempler

1. form: To kill (infinitiv); I kill (præsens); I shall kill them eventually (futurum).

2. form: I killed the cat by mistake (præteritum).

3. form: I have killed (perfektum); I had killed them before leaving the party (pluskvamperfektum); everyone speaks about the three civilians killed by rockets (ppp).

BEMÆRK: Mine egne elever skal desuden kunne bøje verberne to lay og to lie (se nedenunder i listen) samt kende forskel på deres anvendelse.

 

arise (opstå) - arose - arisen
awake (vågne) - awoke/awakened - awaked/awakened

babysit - babysat - babysat
backslide (få tilbagefald) - backslid - backslid
be (være) - am/are/is - was/were - been
bear (føde) - bore - born
bear (bære) - bore - borne
beat (slå) - beat - beaten
become (blive) - became - become
begin (begynde) - beginning - began - begun
bend (bøje) - bent - bent
bid (byde) - bid - bid
bid (hilse) - bid/bade - bidden
bind (binde) - bound - bound
bite (bide) bit - bitten
bleed (bløde) - bled - bled
blow (blæse) - blew - blown
break (brække) - broke - broken
breed (avle, opfostre) - bred - bred
bring (bringe) - brought - brought
broadcast (udsende) - broadcast(ed) - broadcast(ed)
build (bygge) - built - built
burn (brænde) - burned/burnt - burned/burnt
burst (briste) - burst - burst
buy (købe) - bought - bought

cast (kaste) - cast - cast
catch (gribe) - caught - caught
chide (irettesætte) - chid - chid
choose (vælge) - chose - chosen
clap (klappe) - clapped/clapt - clapped/clapt
cling (klynge sig til) - clung - clung
clothe (iklæde sig) - clad/clothed - clad/clothed
come (komme) - came - come
cost (koste) - cost - cost
creep (krybe) - crept - crept
crossbreed (krydse) - crossbred - crossbred
cut (skære) - cut - cut

deal (tildele) - dealt - dealt
dig (grave) - dug - dug
disprove (modbevise) - disproved - disproved/disproven
dive (dykke) - dived/dove - dived
do (gøre) - did - done
draw (tegne) - drew - drawn
dream (drømme) - dreamed/dreamt - dreamed/dreamt
drink (drikke) - drank – drunk (attributivt: drunken)
drive (køre) - drove - driven
dwell (bo) - dwelt/dwelled - dwelt/dwelled

eat (spise) - ate - eaten

fall (falde) - fell - fallen
feed (fodre) - fed - fed
feel (føle) - felt - felt
fight (kæmpe) - fought - fought
find (fnde) - found - found
fit (passe i størrelse) - fit (fitted) - fit (fitted)
fit (tilpasse, passe ind) - fitted (fit) - fitted (fit)
flee (flygte) - fled - fled
fling (kyle) - flung - flung
fly (flyve) flew - flown
forbid (forbyde) - forbade - forbidden
forget (glemme) - forgot - forgotten
forecast (forudsige) - forecast - forecast
forgive (tilgive) - forgave - forgiven
forsake (svigte) - forsook - forsaken
freeze (fryse) - froze - frozen
frostbite (forfryse) - frostbit - frostbitten

get (få) - got - got (USA: gotten)
give (give) - gave - given
go (gå) - went - gone
grind (knuse) - ground - ground
grow (vokse) - grew - grown

hang (hænge) - hung (hanged) - hung (hanged)
have (have) - had - had
hear (høre) - heard - heard
hew (udhugge) - hewed - hewn/hewed
hide (skjule) - hid - hidden
hit (slå) - hit - hit
hold (holde) - held - held
hurt (gøre ondt) - hurt - hurt

inbreed (indavle) - inbred - inbred
inlay (indlægge) - inlaid - inlaid
interbreed (krydse)- interbred - interbred
interweave (væve ind i) –

                     interwove/interweaved - interwoven/interweaved
interwind (sammensno) - interwound -interwound

keep (beholde) - kept - kept
kneel (knæle) - knelt/kneeled - knelt/kneeled
knit (strikke) - knitted/knit - knitted/knit
know (vide) - knew - known

lade (
lade, læsse) - laded - laden
LAY (
lægge (transitivt)) (ppa: laying) - laid - laid (uregelmæssig)
lead (føre) - led - led
lean (læne sig) - leaned/leant - leaned/leant
leap (springe) - leaped/leapt - leaped/leapt
learn (lære) - learned/learnt - learned/learnt
leave (forlade) - left - left
lend (udlåne) - lent - lent
let (lade, udleje) - let - let
LIE-1 (
lægge sig/ligge (intransitivt)) (ppa: lying) - lay - lain (uregelmæssig)
LIE-2 (
lyve) (ppa: lying) - lied - lied (regelmæssig)
light (tænde) - lit (lighted) - lit (lighted)
lose (tabe) - lost - lost

make (lave) - made - made
mean (betyde) - meant - meant
meet (møde) - met - met
melt (smelte) - melted - molten/melten
miscast (ikke passe til en rolle) - miscast - miscast
misdeal (give forkert) - misdealt - misdealt
misdo (gøre forkert) - misdid - misdone
mishear (høre forkert) - misheard - misheard
mislay (forlægge) - mislaid - mislaid
mislead (vildlede) - misled - misled
misread (læse forkert) - misread - misread
misspeak (tale forkert) - misspoke - misspoken
misspell (stave forkert)

misspelled/misspelt - misspelled/misspelt

misspend (bruge forkert) - misspent - misspent
mistake (tage fejl) - mistook - mistaken
misunderstand (misforstå) –

                      misunderstood - misunderstood
miswrite (skrive forkert) - miswrote - miswritten
mow (meje) - mowed - mown (mowed)

offset (modregne) - offset - offset
outbid (overbyde) - outbid - outbid
outdo (overgå) - outdid - outdone
outdrink (drikke mere end) - outdrank - outdrunk
outgrow (vokse ud af) - outgrew - outgrown
outride (ride fra) - outrode - outridden
outrun (løbe fra) - outran - outrun
outsell (sælge mere end) - outsold -outsold
overbid (overbyde) - overbid - overbid
overcome (overvinde) - overcame - overcome
overdo (gøre for meget ud af det) - overdid - overdone
overeat (overspise) - overate - overeaten
overhear (komme til at høre) - overheard - overheard

oversee (overvåge, holde opsyn med) – oversaw - overseen
oversleep (sove over sig) - overslept - overslept
overspeak (tale over sig) - overspoke - overspoken
overspend (bruge for meget) - overspent - overspent
overtake (overhale) - overtook - overtaken
overthrow (vælte) - overthrew - overthrown

partake (tage del i) - partook - partaken
pay (betale) - paid - paid
plead (erklære sig) - pleaded/pled - pleaded/pled
prepay (betale forud) - prepaid - prepaid
preshrink (få til at krympe i forvejen) –

           preshrank – preshrunk (attributivt: preshrunken)
proofread (læse korrektur) - proofread - proofread
prove (bevise) - proved - proven/proved
put (lægge) - put - put

quick-freeze (lynfryse) - quick-froze - quick-frozen
quit (holde op) quit/quitted - quit/quitted

read (læse /ri:d/) - read (/red/) - read (/red/)
rebroadcast (genudsende)

rebroadcast(ed) - rebroadcast(ed)

rebuild (genopbygge) - rebuilt - rebuilt
relay (udskifte) - relaid - relaid (uregelmæssigt)
relay (videresende) - relayed - relayed (regelmæssigt)
repay (tilbagebetale) - repaid repaid
resend (sende tilbage) - resent - resent
reset (nulstille) - reset - reset
retell (genfortælle) - retold - retold
rethink (genvurdere) - rethought - rethought
rewind (spole tilbage) - rewound - rewound
rewrite (skrive om) - rewrote - rewritten
rid (befri) - rid - rid
ride (ride, køre) - rode - ridden
ring (ringe) - rang - rung
rise (rejse sig, stå op) - rose - risen
roughcast (skitsere) - roughcast - roughcast
run (løbe) - ran - run

saw (save) - sawed – sawn/sawed

say (sige) - said - said
see (se) - saw - seen
seek (søge) - sought - sought
sell (sælge) - sold - sold
send (sende) - sent - sent
set (sætte) - set - set
sew (sy) - sewed - sewn/sewed
shake (ryste) - shook - shaken
shave (barbere) - shaved - shaven/shaved
shear (klippe) - sheared - sheared/shorn
shed (udgyde) - shed - shed
shine (skinne) shined/shone – shone/shined
shit (skide) - shit/shat/shitted - shit/shat/shitted
shoe (sko (f.eks. hest), beslå) – shod – shod
shoot (skyde) – shot – shot
show (vise) – showed – shown (showed)
shrink (krympe) – shrank (shrunk) – shrunk (attr.: shrunken)
shrive (tage i skrift) – shrove – shriven
shut (lukke) – shut – shut
sing (synge) – sang – sung
sink (synke, sænke) – sank – sunk (attributivt: sunken)

sit (sidde) – sat – sat
slay (slå ihjel) – slew (slayed) – slain (slayed) (uregelmæssig)
slay (more) – slew/slayed – slayed (regelmæssig)
sleep (sove) – slept – slept
slide (glide) – slid – slid
sling (slynge) – slung – slung
slink (snige sig) – slinked/slunk – slinked/slunk
slit (flænge) – slit – slit
smell (lugte) – smelled/smelt – smelled/smelt
sneak (liste) – sneaked/snuck – snuck/sneaked
sow (så) – sowed – sowed/sown
speak (tale) – spoke – spoken
speed (haste) – sped/speeded – sped/speeded
spell (stave) – spelled/spelt – spelled/spelt
spend (bruge) – spent – spent
spill (spilde) – spilled/spilt – spilled/spilt
spin (spinde, dreje rundt) – spun – spun
spit (spytte) – spat (spit) – spat (spit)
split (spiltte) – split – split
spoil (ødelægge) – spoiled/spoilt – spoiled/spoilt
spoon-feed (made med ske) – spoon-fed – spoon-fed
spread (sprede) – spread – spread
spring (springe) – sprang (sprung) – sprung
stand (stå) – stood – stood
steal (stjæle) – stole – stolen
stick (klæbe) – stuck – stuck
sting (stikke) – stung – stung
stink (stinke) – stank (stunk) – stunk
strew (strø) – strewed – strewn/strewed
stride (skride) – strode – stridden
strike (ramme) – struck – struck/stricken
string (strenge op) – strung – strung
strive (stræbe) – strove/strived – striven/strived
sublet (fremleje) – sublet – sublet
sunburn (blive solbrændt)

sunburned/sunburnt – sunburned/sunburnt

swear (sværge, bande) – swore – sworn
sweat (svede) – sweat/sweated – sweat/sweated
sweep (feje) – swept – swept
swell (svulme) – swelled – swollen/swelled
swim (svømme – swam – swum
swing (svinge) – swung – swung

take (tage) – took – taken
teach (undervise) – taught – taught
tear (rive) – tore – torn
telecast (sende i fjernsynet) – telecast – telecast
tell (fortælle) – told – told
test-drive (testkøre) – test-drove – test-driven
think (tænke) – thought – thought
throw (kaste) – threw – thrown
thrust (støde) – thrust – thrust
tread (træde) – trod – trodden/trod
typecast (sætte i bås) – typecast – typecast
typewrite (maskinskrive) – typewrote – typewritten

undergo (undergå) – underwent – undergone
underlie (ligge under) – underlay – underlain
understand (forstå) – understood – understood
undertake (påtage sig, foretage) – undertook – undertaken
undo (gøre ugjort) – undid – undone
unfreeze (tø op) – unfroze – unfrozen
unknit (trævle op) – unknitted/unknit – unknitted/unknit
unlearn (aflære, få ud af hovedet igen) –

unlearned/unlearnt – unlearned/unlearnt

uphold (holde oppe) – upheld – upheld
upset (gøre ked af det) – upset – upset

wake (vågne, våge) – woke/waked – woken/waked
waylay (ligge på lur) – waylaid – waylaid
wear (bære, have på) – wore – worn
weave (flette) wove/weaved – woven/weaved
wed (ægte) – wed/wedded – wed/wedded
weep (græde, flæbe) – wept – wept
wet (gøre våd) – wet/wetted – wet/wetted (uregelmæssig)
whet (hvæsse) – whetted – whetted (regelmæssig)
win (vinde) – won – won
wind (sno) – wound – wound
withdraw (trække sig tilbage) – withdrew – withdrawn
withhold (tilbageholde) – withheld – withheld
withstand (modstå) – withstood – withstood
wreak (udøse) – wrought – wrought
wring (vride) – wrung – wrung
write (skrive) – wrote – written


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TJEK et verbums bøjningsform her eller HER.

 

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